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Remarks concerning the older History

"Contributions to the History of Upland village Bömighausen by Karl Schäfer"

1. The situation

Bömighausen´s centre is situated in the narrow Neerdar valley, about 1,5 km above that point, where the Neerdar floats together with Rhena Creek.

A small part of the village was built up in front of the so-called “Hundemarkede” at the slope of the “Werbelscheid” after the country road Korbach – Brilon had been constructed. A third part grew up on the slope of the ridge towards the “Lönn”.

The village was built at a height of 400 m above sea level, its new parts have settled at a height of 440 – 460 m. The western boundary amounts up to 498m ( Sonder ), 584 m ( Stender ), the northern part goes up to 498m ( Bömighäuser Tannen ). The northern part amounts to 553m ( Werbelscheid ) and in the east 553m ( Ahrenscheid).

Bömighausen is a village in the north – eastern part of the Rhine- Slate- Mountains, and within this area it belongs to the highlands of Waldeck and East Sourland. Within these areas it is to be found in the north- eastern part of the Waldeccian Upland and on a ridge that goes from Rhena to Flechtdorf. Near the eastern border of the Wipperberg the boundary touches the Rhena – Goldhausen – Plateau, east of the mouth of the Rhena into Neerdar Creek.

Slate and grey – wacke covering the slopes is to be seen and they are covered just a few cm by gravel holding soil. The Ahrenscheid, Werbelscheid and Stender area are well- known for the narrow rocky bars which come out of the soil. These fields were ploughed in former times, some of them only a few years ago, and the farmers had to be very careful and even “tricky” to handle the farm implements and the working animals to make sure that they came home unbruised.

2. Supposed Times of Foundation

When were humans ready to settle in this place? You will never find an exact answer. The oldest documents containing news about the village go back to 1311, 1332 and 1336. They just make sure the existence, not the foundation of the village. However, it seems to be likely that there lived people in the Neerdar Valley who farmed the more fertile areas and used the less fertile ones for growing stock. We know that the neighbour villages had churches even at the beginning of the 14th century. By this time, the flatter areas “Wächter” and “On Wipperberge” had been farmed long ago.

The settlement – exploration takes three periods of settling in the Middles Ages for sure. The 1st one comes up to 400 A. D. It is likely that those settlements with names ending with “-hausen” or “-inghausen” were built in Old Saxon and Carolingian times. Thus, they belong to the second period.

Now I am going to present Bömighausen´s early history starting with its name – firstly mentioned in 1266 – and documented in 1311. On contrary to former explorations the village´s history goes back further 45 years.

From the History of Bömighausen

Collected from different origins by Mr. Friedrich Trachte – Dommes.

Today Bömighausen belongs to the rural district of Waldeck – Frankenberg. It is situated at a height of 450 – 600 m (over sea – level) at the beginning of the Upland, bedded in green meadows which are flown through by the Neerdar. The village is surrounded by marvelous beech- tree woods covering steep hills.

In political respects Bömighausen belonged to the Principality of Waldeck that was turned to a free state in 1919, then – in 1928 – Waldeck  became a part of Hassia. After having belonged to the rural district of the Eisenberg, it was added to just the one rural district of Waldeck by the Nazi government.

 In our days the inhabitants earn their living using the rather poor results from farming. Nevertheless a great deal of workers and craftsmen make money in the county town of Korbach and its surrounding.

The Village History in chronological order ( entries ):

Bömighausen, village at the route from Korbach to Brilon, aggregation village in Neerdar Valley.

Sources: Staatsarchiv Marburg: Urkunden ab 1336. Kopiare. Landregister 1537 u. 1541. Saalbuch 1682. Langenbecks Nachlass.

Literature: W. Classen 273. C. Curtze 645. F.A.v. Klettenberg, Mskr. 1738

Church records: records from 1673 im Kb. Rhena.

From the register „Lehensgerechtigkeiten“ (feudal tenure justice) owned by the Knights of Rhena people can learn that the village already existed during the 1st settlement period ( 300 – 800 A.D.) The document says that Bömighausen developed from an estate or just a farm owned by the noblemen of Rhena during the 1st period of settlement. This possession probably became divided between three brothers.

The village´s foundation took place in the 2nd period (400 – 800 A.D.)

On Nov. 12th, 1266 the village´s name is made popular, together with the witness Gozwinus de Bovenchusen. (Bömighausen).

On Sept. 22nd, 1311 a farm in Bömighausen is specially mentioned in a document.

Gottschalk von Mühlhausen gives his possessions to Bertold v. Büren zu Wünnenberg.

1313 and 1336: Abraham v. Welleringhausen got a hide of land in Bömighausen as a feudal tenure. (Seiberts U.B. II 556, 120)

1332 – 1544: The “Tenth” of Bömighausen is Waldeccian feudal tenure, owned by Heinemann v. Itter.

July 4th, 1336: Count Wilhelm (William) v. Arnsberg gives a hide of land in Bömighausen to his servant Abraham  v. Welleringhausen (Welteringchusen). (STA: MWa. Doc. 8863). See the following picture:

 

See the following picture:

Mice gnawed a part the original document, therefore the following text was written on the outer part: “the mouse of Baumschußen (Bömighausen)”

Aug. 29th, 1336: Abraham v. Welleringhausen gives the monastery in Netze for his niece (fratruelis mea) a hide of land in Bömighausen as a gift. (Sta – Marburg, Wald. U. (Doc.) No. 8864) Well preserved seal of Abraham v. Welleringhausen.

1378: The name of the parish church in Neerdar is St. Pankratius (MW 1954, No. 13). Bömighausen is mentioned in connection with this church, in Welleringhausen as well. There is also written about an estate named Mommelchusen, property of the noblemen of Treise or Treisbach.

1390 – 1392: Otto of Immighausen owns half an estate in Bonenkusen (MW Doc. 8978 + 8864).

History: Bomenchusen (1448), Brunekusen (1518), Boninckusen (1537), Böhminghausen (1818).

1401: The noblemen of Rhena own the „Tenth“. In 1448 Netze Monastery got an estate. (in “Bau und Kunst = Construction  + Art (M.W. 1954 No. 13). A report taken from the Marburg Archives, now property of Schüttler, Welleringhausen says that Gude v. Welleringhausen, a nun, gave her estate in Bömighausen to the monastery in Netze.

May 1st, 1423: Johann v. Bovenhusen is mentioned as a witness (Regesten Bredelar, p. 250 f.No. 544).

1448: Mariental Monastery in Netze is the owner of an estate in the village. (Sonntagsbote 26.1. 1958 in “Bau + Kunst, vol. 3, p. 36) It is written about an estate belonging to this monastery and being situated in Bömighausen.

1466: Kurt and Johann of Rhena get two farms in Bömighausen as feudal tenure from Count Wolrad I. (Bockshammer  p. 143)

1470: The clan of Treise temporarily dies out in the village. The Bornemann Family takes over the farm.(M.W. 1954, No. 13).

Nov. 18th, 1512 and Apr. 24th, 1514: Contracts between Count Philipp and Caspar Treyse.(StAm 10687).

Febr.21st,1521: A pasture in Bömighausen is mentioned. (Korbacher Urkunden = Documents S. 161 / 300 ).

1529: Bömighausen pays 10 guilders as land tax. (STAM. 115/116)

1527: The village belongs to the court of justice in Flechtdorf. (Curtze, p. 505)

1530: Young nobleman Treise (Trise or Treißen) pawns a part of his estate (Wüstegut on the Mühlenwiese = mill- pasture)

1531: Count Philipp pawns the “Tenth” (He had the right to collect this special tax on property of those people who lived in the villages which he owned) for 240 guilders to the judiciary Caspar Treise. The village belongs to Count Philipp III.

1533: Struggle about sheep and pigs (Bockshammer S. 220)

1537: Edition of a so- called “Salbook”.

1540: Count Wolrad prescribes Bömighausen for 500 guilders to widow + son Johann Treis (STA:M. 114.4.25) after Caspar Treis´ death. By this time Count Philipp is supposed to require the “Tenth” in Bömighausen.

1544: In connection with the “turk tax” seven households are mentioned.

1547: A mill is built. In 1662 / 69 castle – estate is property of Caspar Treiß.

1551: Count Philipp pawns the “Tenth” to the official Treise.

1560: Hesseler about Kaldenhöfer:” He is a barrel of lies! If he would know half as much he does about justice and could speak Latin, no doctor at the King´s Court in Speyer could be compared with him.”

1569: Johann Treise appears as a witness at this court. (Führer, p. 249)

1575: List of taxes.

1577: Treiße as witness in connection with Flechtdorf Monastery (STA Düsseldorf, Dösseler, p.307, Münster, Kurlöln II, 4719)

1581: An inhabitant of Bömighausen is mentioned in a debitor – register.

1581, partly 1576: Reverend Ludolph Westenute collects debitors´ names. A dead Johann Scheffner and his dead wife´s depts are documented, the goods they left behind as well. The register is called “outstanding depts. Of Beumekhausenn”. Johann Baker, sheepmaster: 24 Thaler (thlr.) for sheep food and stable. Hermann Barks: 1load of hay 23 thlr. and grazing. Henrich Bornemanns: 2 heaps of hay 13 thlr. Lipp Johanns: 13 thlr. for using grazing land. 3 thlr. owes Paul Westenute(Last line was cancelled.) All together: 114 thlr.

1596: Linus Nypen from Bömighausen is mentioned. (Korbach Doc. 209/ 389 M.W.)

People about other ones (,we all know that there isn´t anything like this in our days, of course!)

Hans Kaspar Treis about Bomighausen inhabitants: “If I demand services and taxes from them, they will pay just as much attention to me as a crow on Sunday.”

Treis about Kaldenhöfer:” He said, as I am such a small person he will eat me up in his morning soup!”

1561: Hesseler about Kaldenhöfer: “ It is true: this flattery, loose- tongued liar and tool of the devil

1600: Official bill of Eisenberg taxes in money.

In the beginning of the 17th cent. We get to know about a so- called “Freihof” in Bömighausen. The owners probably were the Misses of Boyneburg. They were free from paying taxes to the count.

1602: Salbook, the village had 16 households.

1612: tax on number of sheep.

1623 / 1630: taxation and salary list.

1624: struggle because of Friedrich Heßler, Treise´s son – in – law (STA.M 115/4).

1627 – 35: Complaints and unpleasantness in the church district because of ruinous war chaos: passing troops, requiring of stock, rooms, food, grain. The inhabitants´ life became very hard and their support was nearly impossible.

1630: There were 14 households in Bömighausen.

1634 – 36: During the so-called “30 Years War” 10 farms out of 16 were destroyed by pestilence, fires and having given up the estates.

1638, July 24th: The village has to pay 161 “Taler” and 15 “Albus” to the emperor´s troops. The population complained about the expences for the county, they had owed the tribute for several years. There was a lot of farmland that could not be cultivated because of the lack of seed.

After the war (1618 – 48) the noblemen of Rhena gave up the tax called “Tenth”(= the nobleman owning the region got the right to take one tenth of the farmers´ goods as  yearly tax.). In the tax register the Rhena noblemen remarked that the village´s inhabitants succeeded to come to a certain wealth, because they were busy and worked economically. As a special bonus the inhabitants were released from the “Tenth”.

1648, Aug.31st: Johann Werner Treise sells his mill and his taxes rights to the official of the count Judenhertzog in Korbach.

1650: Only 6 houses and just 2 barns were left in the village out of 23 houses and 4 barns in former times.

1662 – 69: The castle estate belongs to Hans Caspar Treis, then in

1670: to the Waldeccian chancellor Johann Vietor in Lengefeld.

1670: The “Dannen” near Bömighausen are palmed off upon his son- in-law von Rauchbar .(STAM 115, 26, Pak 22)

 1675: Bömighausen belongs to the rural district Eisenberg, to the Count of Flechtdorf and the “Freistuhl”(= another word for “Feme”, an organization of well-known men who had a certain influence. People trusted them, and so those men became judges who sentenced criminal delinquents.) of Usseln.

1682: The community´s salbook (= a codex of rights and orders ) remarks that there lived 2 “Vollspänner” (= persons owning 4 horses and a wagon to move freight), 5 “Halbspänner” (= persons owning 2 horses and a wagon to move freight)and 4 families with very little agricultural possibilities who could not support themselves without working for those who were better off. There were 13 houses in the village, a mill and 3 destroyed homeplaces which would never be built up newly. The families Treis, (Treisen, Treiß) who were mentioned in 1623 and 30, are no longer present in 1682, the last member moved to the area round Fritzlar in 1648. Backhaus, Münster, Nollen, Bornemann, Schmidt, Belen, Engelmann, Becker, Lipp are mentioned no longer. Newcomers are Geldmacher, Küthe, Schalk, Klein, Jäger, Ranft and Kiel.

1689: Joh. Michael Geldmacher: judge and churchprovisor.

1689: Division contract “Nöllen Wüstegut” between Schüttler and Klemenz.List of names (1689): Nobleman von Rauchbahr, Werner Knipschild, Tebes Backhauß, Henrikus Peters (Welleringhausen), Georg Kalhöfer (Kalthöfer/Kahlhöfer), Junker Treese, Engelbrecht Küten, Joh. Kalhöfer, Georg Kleine, Melcher Bergmann (Bergkmann/Berkman), Johann Arendt Schalk/Schalck, Henrich Knipschild (Knipschildt:Henrich) , Sauren, Jost Welwegge, Johann Söltzer/Sölzer, Stoffel Reuter, Hans Henrich Jäger, Johann Küten, Jacob Klemendt (Klemend, Klemendt, Kleimentz,Kleymentz) Johannes Bählen (Behlen) Henrich Schütler, Johann Michael Geldmacher (judge) Jeremias Stöcker (from outward).

1707 Hans Michael Geldmacher was invested with an estate in Usseln. His son- in- law took it over in   1744.

1719 A school is founded. In the 18 th. century probably charcoal was produced , because there is still a small plateau on the northern slope of the Werbelberg (= -hill) above the „Weißen Brüche“. It is pretty sure that there were charcoal piles. Until today pit and claim show that people dug for iron  Im Werbelberg . Thus, a pit was found above Knipschild. There were 2 claims in the area  „Auf dem Gären“, and one more above the village, on the left of the quarry. Probably , people also looked for iron at the „Stender“, you can find some trials of digging there, too. 

1724 Georg Klein ist he first teacher in Bömighausen.

1733 – 1806 the village belongs to the “Official District of the Eisenberg” (Höhle 7).

1738 14 houses. – The village does not possess a church of its own. Bömighausen belonged to the pastoral district of Neerdar.

1808 Marriage contract No.17 Berndorf: Joh. Henrich Behlen Bömighausen oo 20.03.1808 Zirkeler, Anna Mar. Elis. Berndorf.

1816 – 1866 Bömighausen belongs to the supervision of the Eisenberg.

1836 A community house is built.

1838 22 houses are there in Bömighausen with 141 inhabitants.

1847 – 1850  Road construction  Korbach – Brilon.

1838  22 houses and 141 inhabitants are in the village.

1857 The  „Herhus“ which stood in „Dommes´ „ garden was sold to Oberschledorn.

1876/1877 Road construction to Alleringhausen.

1880 am 22.10. snowfall, depth: ½ foot.(today: 1 foot = 0,3048 cm)

1880 Carl Emde tries to settle a dairy plant.

1887 The choral society is founded.

1898 Fritz Schäfer buys the inn and the grocery.

1904 A bridge is built across the Neerdar.

1908 Construction of the 1st water pipe.

1913 The beginning of the railway construction which was finished in 1917.

1928 A new school house was built.

1938 Enlargening of the „Reichsstraße 251“ (=street constructed and supported by the government) .

1945 The first American soldiers enter the village during the easter week.  

1948  267 inhabitants live in the village.

1963 Gold in the competition for getting the village more beautiful.

1963 New construction of the community water pipe.

1970 The church was built.

1971 The school became definitely closed.

1974 Fusing : Community Willingen Upland.

1972 A small lake is established.

1982 Building of the community hall.

1997 Building of the modern sewage system.

2003 Modern stylish windows are installed in church.

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